Free Astronomy Magazine July-August 2015 - page 3

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S U M M A R Y
The United Arab Emirates look at Mars
The Emirates’ rulers have given a significant boost to their state space program by launching an un-
manned mission scheduled to reach Mars in 2021. The impact that this initiative will have in techno-
logical, scientific and socio-economic terms in that region of the Arab world will be much deeper...
4
The Dawn spacecraft reaches Ceres
The largest and most massive dwarf planet of the inner solar system has been closely photographed
for the first time by an unmanned spacecraft which entered into its orbit. The mapping of its surface
and the chemical and spectrometric surveys will allow to characterize the conditions and processes...
12
Hubble finds giant halo around the Andromeda Galaxy
Scientists using NASA's Hubble Space Telescope have discovered that the immense halo of gas envelop-
ing the Andromeda galaxy, our nearest massive galactic neighbor, is about six times larger and 1,000
times more massive than previously measured. The dark, nearly invisible halo stretches about a...
24
VLT discovers new kind of globular star cluster
Globular star clusters are huge balls of thousands of stars that orbit most galaxies. They are among the old-
est known stellar systems in the Universe and have survived through almost the entire span of galaxy
growth and evolution. Matt Taylor, a PhD student at the Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Santiago...
26
First detection of reflected visible light from 51 Pegasi b
The exoplanet 51 Pegasi b lies some 50 light-years from Earth in the constellation of Pegasus. It was
discovered in 1995 and will forever be remembered as the first confirmed exoplanet to be found
orbiting an ordinary star like the Sun (two earlier planetary objects were detected orbiting in the...
30
SDP.81, an unprecedented Einstein ring
Using the ESO's Atacama Large Millimeter/ submillimeter Array, some teams of astronomers took full
advantage of the natural phenomenon of gravitational lensing to investigate the internal structure of a
galaxy 11.7 billion light-years away. Never before had it been possible to reach such a high-resolution...
36
Dark matter may not be completely dark after all
For the first time dark matter may have been observed inter-acting with other dark matter in a way
other than through the force of gravity. Using the MUSE instrument on ESO’s VLT in Chile, along with
images from Hubble in orbit, a team of astronomers studied the simulta-neous collision of four...
44
Astronomers set a new galaxy distance record
An international team of astronomers, led by Yale and the University of California, Santa Cruz, pushed
back the cosmic frontier of galaxy exploration to a time when the Universe was only five percent of its
present age. The team discovered an exceptionally luminous galaxy more than 13 billion years in the...
46
Complex organic molecules discovered in infant star system
New ALMA observations reveal that the protoplanetary disc surrounding the young star MWC 480
contains large amounts of methyl cyanide (CH3CN), a complex carbon-based molecule. There is enough
methyl cyanide around MWC 480 to fill all of Earth’s oceans. This star is only about one million years...
50
Hubble traces the migration of white dwarfs in cluster 47 Tucanae
Astronomers using the NASA/ ESA Hubble Space Telescope have, for the first time, collected a census
of young white dwarf stars beginning their migration from the crowded centre of an ancient star clus-
ter to its less populated outskirts. The new results challenge our ideas about how and when a star...
52
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